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Social Infrastructure gap identification

As we all use, there exists a lot of variety of infrastructure and facilities in our surrounding. These facilities can broadly be classified as (1) Physical infrastructure and, (2) Virtual infrastructure.

The Physical Infrastructure can further then be classified as (1) Service infrastructure and, (2) Social infrastructure. The Service infrastructure and Social infrastructure classification depends upon the type of usage and includes for every facility beyond our privately-held premise (home, or office or alike).

For service infrastructure components, water supply is calculated using daily per capita (or per person) requirements. Commercial and industrial supplies are calculated separately. About 80% of supplied water is received back in the system of sewage network. This wastewater either needs to be treated or disposed of depending on the quantity and quality. Agricultural wastewater is generally not allowed for entering into sewage network system. The stormwater network is calculated based on rainfall and hydrological parameters and atmospheric considerations. Transportation services and systems have some distinct methods for identification of requirements.

Let us understand the gap identification process for social infrastructure and move forward chalking out a plan for currently lacking facilities as well as future requirements. The tricky part here is, current needs can be identified using secondary data on population obtained from the Census of India of the previous decade (at present, the last one available is, Census of India 2011). For obtaining requirements for the current time, the population recorded in the year 2011 needs to be extended till the current year, say, the year 2018. For that, past growth rate on Annual Average Growth Rate (AAGR) can be calculated and applied for subsequent years till the year 2018. At times, it may differ from the existing population as the rise or fall in the number of citizens settled at a place is very dynamic and depends on several criteria for an individual to choose to reside where. Use of available URDPFI 2014 guidelines shall be used to identify gaps in the social infrastructure and facilities.

The “Urban Villages” gradually shift towards area under the stress due to the remarkable growth of population, built structures and increasing demand for the land. Such kind of growth needs to be addressed carefully and a land use plan well in advance need to be proposed in order to regulate and control the random growth of buildings. Puna gam [ 21°12’17.25″N,  72°52’26.25″E] (on the eastern boundary of the city) of Surat (in Gujarat, India) shown an interesting yet alarming case. The village boundary has spatial spread over 7.331 Sq Km. The Puna was included in Surat city administrative limits in the year 2006 vide state government notification, by the time population of this constituency was 28,820 persons which were recorded as merely 8,557 persons in the Census of India, 1991. However, if the Census records are considered, the village of Puna was more than 1.10 Lakh which must be somewhere beyond 2.30 Lakh persons by the time the village was amalgamated within city administrative boundaries to be treated as a municipal corporation ward (Census no. 77). (Maybe, there was some typing error). Whatsoever, such places would not allow for considering any application of urban planning principles. Such situations must be avoided by having a watch on trends through an integration of registration of establishments (commercial) as well as granted building use permissions and applications received for approval. Yet a higher degree of integration is achieved by bringing banks in the loop as these institutions grant loans for the construction & establishment of premises.

Below image shows a graphical representation of this trend.

Census Years 1981 1991 2001 2011
Population in Puna 5096 8557 119092 346598
Density ppha 373.59 627.31 8730.63 25409.10
Growth rate 68% 1292% 3950%
The growth rate for the year 2011 is calculated considering base year as 1991 which is whooping four figure growth in a small area having enormous density. The built-up is low-rise comprising mostly of raw houses and duplexes with almost absence of any high-rise buildings. Streets are narrow and such would not allow for entering rescue vehicles at the times of emergencies. In addition, parking spaces are not created that will add further narrowing of the streets. Such are urban havocs. 
Punagam population trend

(Source: Census of India 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011)

Such cases exert tremendous pressure on the existing urban centre terms of service and social infrastructure service extension. Before inclusion of such constituency, the area was under Panchayat administration where regulations are accommodating and not imposing guided or orderly development. And such socially burst areas are gifted to urban centre administration (in this case, Surat Municipal Corporation) for the provision of services through the 74th Constitution Amendment Act (for compliance to all 18 terms of mandatory requirements under the Article 243-W). A grown baby gifted…! The haphazardly grown area will seldom allow for the implementation of any of service or social infrastructure as per suggested guidelines of URDPFI – no land is available almost. Such brown-field areas have so many challenges up-front for urban planners. The degree of freedom or making choices is least in such cases. Hence, similar should not be allowed rather, if such is happening, it should be identified well in time and pro-active approach shall be taken up by the authorities in place.

Let us concentrate on the identification of gaps in the infrastructure and facilities. A population projection method (generally, mathematical – simple arithmetical to complex statistical) is adopted for obtaining the number of citizens expected to use facilities in future. The volume of persons will help to identify the type and quantity of facilities to be deployed/ created in an area. Following is a case can be used as a reference understanding.

For an area under consideration, the population for the year 2011 is 68,903 persons. For the year 2016, the obtained population using AAGR is considered to be 79,000 persons. Having projection with consideration of growth potential with proposed density due to ongoing industrial establishments and investments, the population by the year 2025 is expected to reach 19,00,558 persons. Exponential growth, we can say. Such cases are witnessed in areas/villages in the proximity of growing city administrative limits. In such locations, people tend to reside due to a cheaper cost of living, yet they can avail most of the advantages available in the progressive urban centre. Very strong economic linkages are also established by means of urban supplies.

The table below is an example that has URDPFI 2014 based guiding norms for various sub-categories under social infrastructure as well as identified gaps for the present population and projected population in the year 2025. A format was developed for Gap Identification through assessment of existing facilities during a Post-graduation dissertation available here at Techno-Economic-Survey Form if trouble in downloading, click the link – [https://bvbhatt.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/techno-economic-survey-form_POOJA.pdf].

Social Infrastructure
Categories Sub categories Population served per Unit Area requirement census 2011 Required GAP as per 2011 assume for 2025 GAP as per 2025
Education Facilities Pre-Primary to Secondary Pre Primary 2500 0.08 ha 0 28 28 575 575
Primary School 5000 0.40 ha 55 14 -41 1150 1095
Senior Secondary 7500 1.80 ha 11 10 -1 1725 1714
Integrated School (without hostel facility 90000 – 1 lakh 3.50 ha 0 n 15 15
integrated School with hostel facility 90000 – 1 lakh 3.90 ha 0 n 15 15
Schools for Physically challenged 45000 0.70 ha 0 2 2 32 32
Schools for Mentally challanged 10 lakh 0.20 ha 0 n 2 2
Higher Education College 1.25 lakh 5.00 ha 0 n 12 12
University Campus 10.00 – 60.00 ha 0 n 0
ITI-A 10 lakh 4.00 ha 1 n 2 1
ITI-B 10 lakh 4.00 ha 0 n 2 2
Engineering College 10 lakh 6.00 ha 0 n 2 2
Medical College 10 lakh 15.00 ha 0 n 2 2
Other Professional colleges 10 lakh 2.00-6.00 ha 0 n 2 2
Nursing and Paramedical Institute 10 lakh 2000 sq.mt 0 n 2 2
Veterinary Institute availability of land 0 n 0
Social Infrastructure
Categories Sub categories Population served per Unit Area requirement census 2011 Required GAP as per 2011 assume for 2025 GAP as per 2025
Healthcare Facilities Dispensary 15000 0.08 – 0.12 ha 21 5 -16 127 106
Nursing home, child welfare and maternity centre 45000 – 1 lakh 0.20 -0.30 ha 0 2 2 19 19
Polyclinic 1 lakh 0.20 -0.30 ha 0 n 19 19
Intermediate Hospital category-B 1 lakh 1.00 ha 0 n 19 19
Intermediate Hospital category-A 1 lakh 3.70 ha 0 n 19 19
Multi‐Speciality Hospital (NBC) 1 lakh 9.00 ha 0 n 19 19
Speciality Hospital (NBC) 1 lakh 3.70 ha 0 n 19 19
General Hospital (NBC) 2.5 lakh 6.00 ha 0 n 8 8
Family Welfare Centre 50000 500-800 sq.mt 0 2 2 38 38
Diagnostic centre 50000 500-800 sq.mt 0 2 2 38 38
Veterinary Hospital for pets and animals 5 lakh 2000 sq.mt 1 n 4 3
Dispensary for pet animals and birds 1 lakh 300 sq.mt 0 n 19 19
Rehabilitation centres as per requirement 0 n 0
Social Infrastructure
Categories Sub categories Population served per Unit Area requirement census 2011 Required GAP as per 2011 assume for 2025 GAP as per 2025
Socio‐cultural Facilities Anganwadi ‐ Housing area/cluster 5000 200-300 sq.mt 44 14 -30 380 336
Community Room 5000 750 sq.mt 31 14 -17 380 349
Community hall,mangalkaryayala, barat ghar/library 15000 2000 sq.mt 6 5 -1 127 121
Music, dance and drama centre 1 lakh 1000 sq.mt 1 n 19 18
Meditation and spiritual Centre 1 lakh 5000 sq.mt 0 n 19 19
Recreational Club 1 lakh 10000 sq.mt 0 n 19 19
Old age home 5 lakh subject to availability of land 0 n 4 4
Religious Facilities At neighbourhood / housing cluster level 5000 400 sq.mt 14 14 380 380
At sub city level in urban extension 10 lakh 4.00 ha 0 n 2 2
Other Facilities Orphanage/ Children’s Centre 10 lakh subject to availability of land 0 n 2 2
Care centre for physically /mentally challenged 10 lakh subject to availability of land 0 n 2 2
Working women – men hostel 10 lakh subject to availability of land 0 n 2 2
Adult education centre 10 lakh subject to availability of land 0 n 2 2
Night Shelter 10 lakh subject to availability of land 0 n 2 2
Socio – Cultural centre/ Exhibition cum fair ground 10 lakh 15 ha 0 n 2 2
Science Centre 10 lakh as per requirement 0 n 2 2
International Convention Centre city level as per requirement 0 n 1 1
Social Infrastructure
Categories Sub categories Population served per Unit Area requirement census 2011 Required GAP as per 2011 assume for 2025 GAP as per 2025
Open Spaces/ recreational Facilities Organised Green Housing Area Park 5000 0.50 ha 14 14 380 380
Neighbourhood park 15000 1.00 ha 5 5 127 127
Community park 1 lakh 5.00 ha 0 n 19 19
District park 5 lakh 25.00 ha 0 n 4 4
Sub city park 10 lakh 100.00 ha 0 n 2 2
Multipurpose Grounds Sub city level multipurpose ground 10 lakh 8.00 ha 0 n 2 2
District level multipurpose ground 5 lakh 4.00 ha 0 n 4 4
Community-level Multipurpose ground 1 lakh 2.00 ha 0 n 19 19
Social Infrastructure
Categories Sub categories Population served per Unit Area requirement census 2011 Required GAP as per 2011 assume for 2025 GAP as per 2025
Sports Facilities Residential unit play area 5000 5000 sq.mt 14 14 0 380 366
Neighbourhood Play area 15000 1.50 ha 0 5 5 127 127
District Sports Centre 1 lakh 8.00 ha 0 n 19 19
Divisional Sports Centre 10 lakh 20.00 ha 0 n 2 2
Social Infrastructure
Categories Sub categories Population served per Unit Area requirement census 2011 Required GAP as per 2011 assume for 2025 GAP as per 2025
Distribution services Petrol/ Diesel filling and Service Centre 270-1620 sq.mt 0 0
Compressed Natural Gas filling station 1080 sq.mt 0 0
LPG station 40000 – 50000 520 sq.mt 2 2 38 38
Milk Distribution 5000 150 sq.mt 14 14 380 380
Social Infrastructure
Categories Sub categories Population served per Unit Area requirement census 2011 Required GAP as per 2011 assume for 2025 GAP as per 2025
Police, Civil Defence and Home Guards Police Post 40000 – 50000 0.16 ha 2 2 38 38
Police Station 90000 1.50 ha n 22 22
Traffic and Police Control Room as per requirement n 1 1
District office and battalion 10 lakh 4.80 ha n 2 2
Police line 20 lakh 4.00 – 6.00 ha n 1 1
District Jail 10 lakh 10.00 ha n 2 2
Civil defence and home guards 10 lakh 2.00 ha n 2 2
Police Training Institute city level 5.00 ha n 1 1
Police Firing Range city level up to 10.00 ha n 1 1
Police camp including Central Police Organisation/ Security Forces up to 10.00 ha n 0
Social Infrastructure
Categories Sub categories Population served per Unit Area requirement census 2011 Required GAP as per 2011 assume for 2025 GAP as per 2025
Safety Management Sub fire station/ Fire Post within 3-4 km radius 0.6 ha 10 10 10 10
Fire Station 2 lakh population or 5-7 km radius 1 ha n 10 10
Disaster Management Centre one in Each admin Zone 1 or 2 ha 1 1 1 1
Fire Training Institute/ College city level 3 ha 1 1 1 1

Further, the above identification may be given a thought for appropriate land parcel allocation using GIS tool. The proximity circles shall be developed for the area/population to be covered by each of the facility.

It becomes important to look forward the actual development of these facilities. The State/ Central Government may work upon however, it will take a lot of time and efforts. Hence, opportunities for involving private-sector in filling-up of gaps shall be explored. For that, a financial plan/ funding requirement shall be worked out to put forward to the investors. However, an overall development perspective with the profit-oriented proposal will be the key area of interest for any investor.

Some examples of a few case studies:

1) About educational facilities

2) About urban green spaces

3) Social infrastructure assessment

If any doubts/questions, let us discuss the comments section below.


Creative Commons License

Social Infrastructure gap identification by Bhasker Vijaykumar Bhatt is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. The work credit is also shared with Er. Kevin Kapadia and Er. Pooja M. Roopawala for partial contribution for the article.

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